Laparoscopy

What is laparoscopy?

Laparoscopy may be used for diagnosis of infertility  or to treat a fertility problem. It is a surgical procedure that involves insertion of a narrow telescope-like instrument through a small incision in the belly button. A laparoscope is a thin, fiber-optic tube, fitted with a light and camera.This allows visualization of the abdominal and pelvic organs including the area of the uterus, fallopian tubes and ovaries.

 

                                                                                           Laparoscope 

 

What is laparoscopy used for in women with infertility?

This procedure allows us to determine whether there are any defects such as scar tissue, endometriosis, fibroid tumours and other abnormalities of the uterus, fallopian tubes and ovaries.Laparoscopy allows your doctor to see the abdominal organs and sometimes make repairs, without making a larger incision that can require a longer recovery time and hospital stay.

If any defects are found then they can sometimes be corrected with operative laparoscopy which involves placing instruments through ports in the scope and through additional, narrow (5 mm) ports which are usually inserted at the top of the pubic hair line in the lower abdomen.

Whether or not diagnostic laparoscopy should be done in females with infertility  is controversial. Because of the cost and invasive nature of laparoscopy, it should not be the first test in the couples diagnostic evaluation. In general, semen analysis, hysterosalpingogram, assessment of ovarian reserve and documentation of ovulation should be assessed prior to consideration of laparoscopy. For example, if the woman has a clear ovulation problem or her male partner has a severe sperm defect then it is unlikely that laparoscopy will provide additional useful information that will help them conceive.

Laparoscopy was part of the standard female infertility work up until the mid-1990’s. Before then most reproductive endocrinology and infertility specialists did laparoscopy prior to using gonadotropins for superovulation of the ovaries as a fertility treatment. However, this tradition has been challenged as being of questionable benefit when assessed by its cost-effectiveness and invasiveness.

Fertility clinics are doing far less diagnostic laparoscopy today than in the 1980’s and 1990’s. Much of this is due to the major advances in IVF technologies and the resulting increases in IVF success rates. Couples are carefully considering the costs of fertility treatments for women. They are asking for insemination treatments and in vitro fertilization, but are usually not interested in having diagnostic surgery.

But there are certain indications which make Laparoscopy worth doing in case of infertility .

  1. Unexplained infertility.
  2. Females with sever PCOS not responding to medical management .
  3. Endometriosis moderate to sever grade .
  4. Tubal blocks on HSG or SSG.
  5. Congenital birth defects in Uterus , ovaries or tubes etc. like double uterus,  septum in uterus unicornuate uterus etc.
  6. any cyst , tumor or polyps in uterus or ovaries.  

Laparoscopy in the hospital vs. laparoscopy in the office

Traditionally laparoscopy has been performed in the hospital operating room. Recently there has been a substantial push in the U.S. for medical cost-cutting. One of the many changes that have come about as part of this is that some physicians have done laparoscopy in their office rather than in the hospital operating room. Thus far, this has been performed by a small percentage of physicians nationally.

There are cost advantages for the insurance companies and for the patient as laparoscopy in the office could be done for approximately $1500-2500 total cost for the patient or insurance company as compared to the total cost when performed in a hospital setting or surgicenters of about $5000-$15,000.

The only advantage to performing laparoscopy in an office setting is reduced cost. The potential advantages of performing the procedure in the hospital or surgicenter setting include the fact that when general anaesthesia is used, larger instruments can be used and operative correction of problems can be readily performed.

Very little operative laparoscopic work can be performed in the office setting because the pain associated with any dissection performed using local anaesthesia and IV sedation. Therefore, if a woman undergoes diagnostic laparoscopy in the office and severe endometriosis, or pelvic adhesions, or tubal damage is discovered – it is likely that the woman will require a second procedure in a hospital or surgicenter setting if an attempt at surgical repair is desired. This is an advantage of hospital laparoscopy over office laparoscopy.

Is it a big procedure? How much work would I miss?

In this country, laparoscopy is usually done with general anaesthesia (you go to sleep) although it can be done with local anaesthesia and in many parts of the world local is the preferred technique. The procedure usually takes between 20 minutes to 2 hours depending upon how much operative, corrective work is required. A complicated case could take up to 4 hours or more. The woman is generally discharged home from the hospital approximately eight  hours after completion of the surgery or next day .In some cases hospital stay may extend depending upon the case and operative procedure. The woman will usually need to take off an additional 1-2 days from work following the procedure. Mild to moderate pain should be expected to last for up to 7 days or so after the procedure.

but now a days good pain control medicines are available , so post operative pain also can be minimized, so that should not be the worry portion . 

what are the complications?

As with any surgical procedure, laparoscopy comes with risks.

According to the American Society of Reproductive Medicine, one or two women out of every 100 may develop a complication, usually a minor one.

Some common complications include:

  • Bladder infection after surgery
    skin irritation around the areas of incision
    Other less common, but potential, risks include:
  • Formation of adhesions
    hematomas of the abdominal wall
    infection
  • Serious complications are rare, but include: damage to the organs or blood vessels found in the abdomen (further surgery may be needed to repair any damage caused.)
  • Allergic reaction
  • Nerve damage
  • Urinary retention
  • Blood clots
  • Other general anesthesia complications
  • Death (around 3 in every 100,000).

 

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